“The Colorado River, as it flows yonder in its channel, does not appear to be a particularly dangerous stream, but it is in fact one of the most treacherous and erratic rivers on this continent,” said Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes to a crowd gathered on the river about 13 miles upstream of Austin, on February 19, 1937. Ickes was there to oversee the groundbreaking ceremony for the Marshall Ford Dam, a short but wide dam that stretched across the Colorado River, and thousands of local residents with firsthand knowledge of the river’s power had driven out to attend.
Floods routinely ravaged communities near the new dam site. In 1935, heavy June rainfall swelled the Colorado and floodwaters surged through Austin, washing out bridges, subsuming trees, and bisecting the town. In 1936, the floods were even worse; the volume of floodwater in Austin was double that of the previous year, engulfing Congress Avenue and the surrounding houses. The river remained swollen for three weeks.
For farmers and everyone else who lived in the West, water was a capricious force, manifesting in catastrophic drought or floods. As communities all over the West convulsed under floodwaters during the 1930s, the nation was also suffering from historic drought. The water shortage catalyzed the manmade crisis of the Dust Bowl; the eroded soil of the High Plains, devastated by farming, set the stage for massive dust storms that could blot out the sun. Thousands of people, their lungs full of dust, died from “dust pneumonia.”
The government’s answer to Western water woes was “reclamation”: land should be tamed, or “reclaimed,” for human use. Rivers could and should be subjugated to the betterment of nearby communities, bringing agriculture and drinking water to where there had previously been none. “The great structure which is to rise here, when completed to its ultimate height, will pull the fangs of the stream,” declared Ickes. “Once this work is done, the Colorado River no longer will be able to strike like a snake in the dark, but will be rendered practically harmless. It will even be made to perform useful work.” The dam, he promised, would help conserve “rapidly diminishing natural resources.”
Dam building surged as part of nearly 34,000 massive public-works projects undertaken during the New Deal. (Other projects included what is now New York’s LaGuardia Airport and the overseas highway from Miami to Key West.) Dam building was a way to provide jobs for idle men, prevent flooding, provide dependable water supplies, and generate hydroelectric power. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration infused the Bureau of Reclamation with relief funds to carry out some of the most ambitious infrastructure projects the country had ever seen. The Hoover Dam began to rise over the Colorado River in Nevada in 1931, while work on the Grand Coulee Dam, over Washington State’s Columbia River, started in 1933; the Central Valley Project—which irrigated California’s Central Valley using a monumental series of dams, reservoirs, and canals—was conceived in 1933.
The Hoover Dam, located 30 miles outside of Las Vegas, was the largest dam of its time and appointed grandly with winged bronze statues to commemorate its building. “Certainly a country that could conquer the desert with a dam such as this was destined for greatness,” writes Stephen Grace in his 2012 book Dam Nation: How Water Shaped the West and Will Determine Its Future. “Regardless of the cost of the dam in dollars and environmental detriment, it did wonders for the spirit of a cowed America. A symbol of rebirth sculpted in concrete, the megadam served as a source of wonder and pride when the nation desperately needed a boost.”
The Marshall Ford Dam was completed in 1941 and renamed the Mansfield Dam, after J. J. Mansfield, congressional representative of Texas’s ninth district and chairman of the House Committee on Rivers and Harbors. At the time of its completion, Mansfield Dam was the fifth-largest masonry dam on the Colorado, built of 3,728,500 tons of concrete. It enables the storage of up to 369.8 billion gallons of water and can generate 108 megawatts of power at any given time—enough energy to power 36,000 homes.
What the Mansfield Dam and other projects born of reclamation haven’t done, however, is eradicate the West’s water issues. “Most of the West is still untrammeled, unirrigated, depopulate in the extreme,” writes Lori Mott in a 2017 introduction to Marc Reisner’s landmark book Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water, first published in 1986. “Modern Utah, where large-scale irrigation has been going on longer than anywhere else, has 3 percent of its land area under cultivation. California has 1,200 major dams, the two biggest irrigation projects on earth, and more irrigated acreage than any other state, but its irrigated acreage is not much larger than Vermont.”
After dam building, the West turned to groundwater-pumping to provide clean water to people and crops. Groundwater is now rapidly being depleted in the West; much of it is ruinously salty. In early-20th-century California, the term “water wars” was coined to describe the acrimonious political struggle over water allotment to metropolitan Los Angeles versus agricultural Owens Valley. (By 1926, Owens Lake was completely drained by the city.) Today, the Colorado River itself—which runs from the Rocky Mountains in Colorado to Lake Mead in Arizona—is in crisis; the Bureau of Reclamation has predicted a 52 percent chance of water shortage on the river in 2020, an unprecedented declaration. The value of existing massive dam projects has been called into question, as dams can lose billions of gallons of water to leakage and evaporation; some politicians have advocated for the Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado to be decommissioned. Meanwhile, demand on the river grows alongside population: since 2000, the state of Colorado has added 1.3 million residents; cities downriver that also depend on the river, such as Las Vegas and Phoenix, Arizona, are growing rapidly, too.
Harold Ickes and his contemporaries understood the power of water, if not the complicated, long-term effects of attempting to master it. “We have learned that when catastrophe befalls one region, it affects all others,” he said in his 1937 speech. “Only in the degree of damage is there any difference.”
In my native state of Texas, prosperity hinges on extracting oil and natural gas from subterranean reserves formed millennia ago. The same goes for water, which, like oil and gas, is in limited supply; there’s only so much of it to go around. To make matters worse, the water we do have is unevenly distributed. In East Texas, moisture and storms entering from the Gulf of Mexico saturate the humid and swampy landscape. As you move north and west, the climate becomes dry to the point of being parched.
Texas is a place of extremes. Over just two days in August 2017, Hurricane Harvey dumped 51 inches—about a year’s worth of rain—on East Texas. The state is also a place of intense heat, where temperatures can soar above 100 degrees for weeks in the summer. The land is prone to both drought and flooding: Houston is routinely inundated with floods and storms of ever-increasing ferocity, while Dallas, to the north, almost ran out of drinking water during a seven-year dry spell in the 1950s, which Texans reverently call the “drought of record.” According to the National Integrated Drought Information System, approximately 13,612,000 Texans are currently living in drought conditions, the worst of which are concentrated in North and West Texas.
How to manage the magic of water has been an elusive question for quite some time in Texas. In 1861, in an attempt to mitigate the effects of flood and drought and figure out how to assign water rights among competing landowners and municipalities, the Ohio Supreme Court case Frazier v. Brown deemed groundwater “so secret, occult, and concealed … an attempt to administer any set of legal rules in respect to them would be involved in hopeless uncertainty, and would be, therefore, practically impossible.” Using this rationale—and in the absence of any real regulation—the “rule of capture” has become the only law governing water rights in Texas. In other words, a landowner’s right to water is only dictated by the power of their pump to swallow it. This capricious legal system, or lack thereof, also accounts for the fact that all the water in Texas is already spoken for. In fact, Texans have been legally granted more rights to water than actually exists.
I live in Austin and work just 30 miles south in San Marcos, Texas. These cities are blessed by a preponderance of cool rivers created by dams and, most refreshingly, by large underground swaths of spongy limestone. This filters and chills the waters of the Edwards Aquifer, which provides drinking water for nearly 2 million people in East and Central Texas.
In John Graves’s erudite and melancholy 1960 memoir, Goodbye to a River—a regional classic—the Texas native chronicles his canoe voyage with his dachshund down the Brazos River, which begins in North Texas and runs to the Gulf of Mexico. The book was a cri de coeur of sorts: Graves had taken the three-week canoe trip because he was concerned that the river’s beauty would be ruined by the planned construction of nine dams along its 1,200-mile path.
In May, I set out in search of aqueous plenty and scarcity. Inspired by Graves’s efforts, but forgoing a young pup in favor of my camera, I decided to embark on a 400-mile picture-making journey from Central Texas to the site of my ancestral home in the aptly named town of Shallowater, located in the dry northwestern part of the state known as the Panhandle. I wanted to craft my own meandering story of Texas water.
I dowse with a digital camera. The light captured and reflected from my subjects is converted into an electric charge that is then measured and turned into a series of numbers expressed as code. In turn, these numbers and symbols are translated again to create the pixels on the screen that you and I perceive as a photograph. At the code level, I often rearrange the light contained in those characters to inject aberrant rivulets of pixels into my images. These distortions come from the file itself and hint at the many possibilities that reside in the depiction of a given subject, while revealing the potential of photographs left untaken.
This process is especially apt for depicting the protean nature of water, which is one of the few substances on our planet that exists commonly as a gas, solid, and liquid. The inclusion of altered pictures renders the straight images I choose all the more surreal, and further embraces the capricious nature of what artist Jeff Wall has called photography’s “liquid intelligence.”
I began at Mansfield Dam, just a few miles outside of what I consider Austin proper. Constructed between 1937 and 1941 as part of the WPA, Mansfield Dam was originally built to contain the floodwaters that had previously devastated the Austin area. The dam forms one of the six Texas Highland Lakes on the lower Colorado River; they provide both drinking water for the greater Austin area and recreational opportunities such as boating and waterskiing. When it was built, it appeared to have been constructed in a desert. Today, people can scuba dive in what was once a desolate valley.
From there I drove to Llano, Texas, an hour northwest of Austin—a town whose eponymous river cuts through its center. A small dam creates a lake on the west side of the Roy B. Inks Bridge, which bisects the town. East of the bridge, the river meanders to a trickle. This is where I found Eddie Smith, a local, sitting in a park and playing with a Y-shaped stick resembling a divining rod. I told him I was there looking for water, and there he was, holding the mythic device that is supposed to dip to point to subterranean water flows. He made a joke that he was futilely searching for water only steps away from the Llano River.
Heading west and ever northward, I arrived at the Twin Buttes Reservoir, located just outside San Angelo, 100 miles west. The terrain here is rocky, shrubby, and dry, named for the two iconic uplifts, which grace the local phone books every year. The Twin Buttes is a low, wide, gravel-banked structure. In contrast to the hulking concrete of Mansfield Dam, which gives rise to skiable waterscapes, Twin Buttes is a much more subtle affair. Like Mansfield, Twin Buttes was built in response to flooding, as well as for reasons of conservation and irrigation. The reservoir is stocked with fish, and the area is public hunting land administered by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department; there are no attendants at the gates, but you must carry a hunting permit on your person at all times.
When I visited, Twin Buttes was one of the emptiest reservoirs in the state, sitting at 6 percent of its total capacity—the water in reservoirs in this hot, dry climate evaporates faster than it’s replenished. When I arrived, the park was pretty deserted, save for one large pickup truck parked on the reservoir banks; its owner was there to fish the shallow waters. I found dusty, spent ammunition casings and rusty picnic structures, and the only noise I heard was a menacing roar from a fighter jet overhead, likely launched from the nearby Goodfellow Air Force Base. Curiously, it was threatening to rain by the time I left. The skies darkened and the winds picked up, but not a drop fell.
From there, I ventured into the flat, windy plain of the Panhandle, where both sides of my family are from. In the 1540s, the conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado called this region the Llano Estacado, which translates to the “staked plains.” This territory earned that moniker (so the story goes) because the land was so featureless, Vázquez de Coronado required his men to lay down stakes like breadcrumbs to navigate the uniform terrain.
My grandpa was born in Shallowater in 1913. He was a man of many trades, but family legend has it that, while installing windmills, he noticed he had to dig ever-deeper wells to reach water. He is said to have been one of the first in the area to speak out about the depletion of the water table. I photographed the parched cotton fields of my great-grandparents, which are still farmed today. The wind never stops blowing there. The conquistador’s stakes have been replaced by looming, electricity-generating wind turbines, whose slow, loping blades present the only visual evidence of the air’s movement, against a horizon of perpetual flatness.
Barry Stone was born in Lubbock, Texas, and lives in Austin. He is the founding member of the artist collective Lakes Were Rivers, and his work is represented by Klaus von Nichtssagend Gallery in New York. He is a professor and coordinator of the photography program at the School of Art and Design at Texas State University.
Explore Federal Project no. 2
The Health and Safety of the Mother
During the Depression, the government encouraged men to get back to work—and women to stay home.
Shelter in Place
The most iconic image from the Great Depression centers on rural poverty—but then, as now, the misery of homelessness was compounded in America’s cities.
Song of the Mississippi
Heartbreak defines the human experience. And nothing can break your heart like your own country.
A Queen Is Born
A local beauty pageant can be about more than just looks. It can also reveal how a community wants to be seen.
When Art Is an Act of Protest
A summer of activism in Chicago reminds us that in order for history to be taught, it must first be recorded.
Hole in One
Harnessing the power of the humble hole punch, to either create narratives or deflate them.
Public Service Announcements
Updating the iconic posters of the Works Progress Administration.
If You Build It, They Will Leave
During the New Deal, Southwest DC was razed to create a “model city” for federal workers. Now the area is being redeveloped again, this time into a gentrified urban playground.
Proposals for a Monument
Public art has the power to show us what we want to see—or reveal what we deserve.
A Room of One’s Own
A photograph of a home speaks volumes about the inhabitant, even when they’re not included in the shot.
Back to the Music, Back to the Game
A visit to the juke joints in the Florida Everglades where migrant laborers could go to relax.
This Land Is Your Land
During the Depression, the federal government urged Americans to visit the country’s natural wonders.
The Exquisite Catalog of a Crow Fair
Wendy Red Star brings illustrations from the Denver Art Museum’s card catalog to the Crow Nation’s annual gathering.
The American Guide to the New Vermont
Shane Lavalette follows the refugees who have made their home in the whitest state in the nation.
Stoop Life and Survival
Documenting a life of a neighborhood means covering street life in all of its joy and pain.
The Afterlives of Slaves
Snapshots of a life after slavery, and an imagining of a world without bondage.
Portraits of Hard Living in America
The faces and places of a forgotten swath of American life.
She Works Hard for the Money
During the Depression, women were advised to “sing for their supper” as a way to survive hard times.
Wall to Wall
Public murals are contested spaces, where retellings of history and new visions of the future fight for prominence.
Signs of Boom and Bust
Mark Steinmetz drives the streets of the city’s fast-growing urban sprawl.
After the Curtain Calls
Fulfilling the American dream of standing under bright lights while your friends and neighbors applaud.
The Many Lives of McCarren Park Pool
Beloved, abandoned, then beloved once more, a Brooklyn pool transforms alongside its neighborhood.
The People of the Land
Dust Bowl migrants had to pull up roots. Native Hawaiians are strengthening theirs.
Letting Sleeping Children Lie
Leanne Shapton reconsiders motherhood after seeing a photograph of children asleep during a square dance.
The Cycle of a Woman’s Life
A 20th-century mural for a women’s prison meets 21st-century inequality.
More Federal Project No. 2
The Health and Safety of the Mother
During the Depression, the government encouraged men to get back to work—and women to stay home.
Shelter in Place
The most iconic image from the Great Depression centers on rural poverty—but then, as now, the misery of homelessness was perhaps worse in America’s cities.